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East End

Review of: East End

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On 16.02.2020
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East End

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Das Londoner East End – ein Spaziergang durch das Viertel

TOP 3 Eventagentur in Deutschland - 20 Jahre Expertise - live, virtuelle und hybride Events - innovative Ideen & außergewöhnliche Umsetzung. Das East End war zu viktorianischen Zeiten die Heimat der Londoner Arbeiterklasse, der Geburtsort von Cockney Rhyming Slang und der Treffpunkt von Jack. Das St Simons Island Townhome with Snowbird Specials in East End bietet Unterkünfte mit kostenfreiem WLAN, weniger als 1 km vom East Beach entfernt.

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Nach ihrer Reise berichten uns unsere Gäste von ihrem Aufenthalt. Das East End in London umfasst die Bezirke östlich des mittelalterlichen Stadtkerns und nördlich der Themse. Das East End in London umfasst die Bezirke östlich des mittelalterlichen Stadtkerns und nördlich der Themse. Inhaltsverzeichnis. 1 Geschichte und Charakter. TOP 3 Eventagentur in Deutschland - 20 Jahre Expertise - live, virtuelle und hybride Events - innovative Ideen & außergewöhnliche Umsetzung. Bei EAST END treffen Ideenakrobaten auf Zahlenjongleure, detailverliebte Entwickler auf tollkühne Event-Astronauten, Denker auf Macher und Nordlichter auf.

Overview Map Photo Map Satellite Directions. Queen Mary University of London University. Stepney Green tube station Metro station.

Ragged School Museum Museum. East London East London is a popularly and informally defined part of London , capital of the United Kingdom.

What is known about it? How did it come to be regarded as the dark heart of London, riddled with crime, poverty and deprivation?

Those dirty Jews and Cockneys will run like rabbits into their holes. Initially, the German commanders were reluctant to bomb London, fearing retaliation against Berlin.

On 24 August , a single aircraft, tasked to bomb Tilbury , accidentally bombed Stepney, Bethnal Green and the City. The following night the RAF retaliated by mounting a forty aircraft raid on Berlin, with a second attack three days later.

The Luftwaffe changed its strategy from attacking shipping and airfields to attacking cities. The City and West End were designated "Target Area B"; the East End and docks were "Target Area A".

This was followed by a second wave of bombers. Silvertown and Canning Town bore the brunt of this first attack.

Between 7 September and 10 May , a sustained bombing campaign was mounted. It began with the bombing of London for 57 successive nights, [] an era known as " the Blitz ".

East London was targeted because the area was a centre for imports and storage of raw materials for the war effort, and the German military command felt that support for the war could be damaged among the mainly working class inhabitants.

On the first night of the Blitz, civilians were killed and 1, seriously wounded. Although the official death toll is 73, [] many local people believed it must have been higher.

Some estimates say or even may have lost their lives during this raid on Canning Town. The effect of the intensive bombing worried the authorities and Mass-Observation was deployed to gauge attitudes and provide policy suggestions, [] as before the war they had investigated local attitudes to anti-Semitism.

Propaganda was issued, reinforcing the image of the "brave chirpy Cockney ". On the Sunday after the Blitz began, Winston Churchill himself toured the bombed areas of Stepney and Poplar.

Anti-aircraft installations were built in public parks, such as Victoria Park and the Mudchute on the Isle of Dogs, and along the line of the Thames, as this was used by the aircraft to guide them to their target.

The authorities were initially wary of opening the London Underground for shelter, fearing the effect on morale elsewhere in London and hampering normal operations.

On 12 September, having suffered five days of heavy bombing, the people of the East End took the matter into their own hands and invaded Liverpool Street Station [] [] with pillows and blankets.

The government relented and opened the partially completed Central line as a shelter. Many deep tube stations remained in use as shelters until the end of the war.

These exploded at roof top height, causing severe damage to buildings over a wider radius than the impact bombs. By now, the Port of London had sustained heavy damage with a third of its warehouses destroyed, and the West India and St Katherine Docks had been badly hit and put out of action.

Families had crowded into the underground station due to an air-raid siren at , one of 10 that day. There was a panic at coinciding with the sound of an anti-aircraft battery possibly the recently installed Z battery being fired at nearby Victoria Park.

In the wet, dark conditions, a woman slipped on the entrance stairs and people died in the resulting crush.

The truth was suppressed, and a report appeared that there had been a direct hit by a German bomb. The results of the official investigation were not released until The first V-1 flying bomb struck in Grove Road, Mile End, on 13 June , killing six, injuring 30, and making people homeless.

Before demolition, local artist Rachel Whiteread made a cast of the inside of Grove Road. Despite attracting controversy, the exhibit won her the Turner Prize for In Bethnal Green, people were killed, and were seriously injured.

War production was changed quickly to making prefabricated houses , [] and many were installed in the bombed areas and remained common into the s.

Today, s and s architecture dominates the housing estates of the area such as the Lansbury Estate in Poplar , much of which was built as a show-piece of the Festival of Britain.

As a maritime port, plague and pestilence has fallen on East Enders disproportionately. The area most afflicted by the Great Plague was Spitalfields, [] and cholera epidemics broke out in Limehouse in and struck again in and The Princess Alice was a passenger steamer crowded with day trippers returning from Gravesend to Woolwich and London Bridge.

On the evening of 3 September , she collided with the steam collier Bywell Castle and sank into the Thames in under four minutes. Of the approximately passengers, over were lost.

In a great loss of life occurred when HMS Albion was launched at the Thames Ironworks shipyard at Bow Creek. The ship's entry into the water created a huge displacement wave which caused a crowded pier to collapse into the water.

Large crowds had been watching the launch, a moment of celebration for the community, and 38 people, mostly women and children were drowned.

Another tragedy occurred on the morning of 16 May when Ronan Point , a storey tower block in Newham , suffered a structural collapse due to a gas explosion.

Four people were killed in the disaster and seventeen were injured, as an entire corner of the building slid away. The collapse caused major changes in UK building regulations and led to the decline of further building of high rise council flats that had characterised s public architecture.

The high levels of poverty in the East End have, throughout history, corresponded with a high incidence of crime. From earliest times, crime depended, as did labour, on the importing of goods to London, and their interception in transit.

Theft occurred in the river, on the quayside and in transit to the City warehouses. This was why, in the 17th century, the East India Company built high-walled docks at Blackwall and had them guarded to minimise the vulnerability of their cargoes.

Armed convoys would then take the goods to the company's secure compound in the City. The practice led to the creation of ever-larger docks throughout the area, and large roads to drive through the crowded 19th century slums to carry goods from the docks.

No police force operated in London before the s. Crime and disorder were dealt with by a system of magistrates and volunteer parish constables, with strictly limited jurisdiction.

Salaried constables were introduced by , although they were few in number and their power and jurisdiction continued to derive from local magistrates, who in extremis could be backed by militias.

In , England's first Marine Police Force was formed by magistrate Patrick Colquhoun and a Master Mariner, John Harriott , to tackle theft and looting from ships anchored in the Pool of London and the lower reaches of the river.

Its base was and remains in Wapping High Street. It is now known as the Marine Support Unit. Each division was controlled by a superintendent, under whom were four inspectors and sixteen sergeants.

The regulations demanded that recruits should be under thirty-five years of age, well built, at least 5-footinch 1. Unlike the former constables, the police were recruited widely and financed by a levy on ratepayers; so they were initially disliked.

The force took until the midth century to be established in the East End. Unusually, Joseph Sadler Thomas, a Metropolitan Police superintendent of "F" Covent Garden Division, appears to have mounted the first local investigation in Bethnal Green , in November of the London Burkers.

One of the East End industries that serviced ships moored off the Pool of London was prostitution , and in the 17th century, this was centred on the Ratcliffe Highway , a long street lying on the high ground above the riverside settlements.

In , it was described by the antiquarian John Stow as "a continual street, or filthy straight passage, with alleys of small tenements or cottages builded, inhabited by sailors and victuallers".

Crews were paid off at the end of a long voyage, and would spend their earnings on drink in the local taverns. One madame described as "the great bawd of the seamen" by Samuel Pepys was Damaris Page.

Born in Stepney in approximately , she had moved from prostitution to running brothels, including one on the Highway that catered for ordinary seaman and a further establishment nearby that catered for the more expensive tastes amongst the officers and gentry.

She died wealthy, in , in a house on the Highway, despite charges being brought against her and time spent in Newgate Prison.

By the 19th century, an attitude of toleration had changed, and the social reformer William Acton described the riverside prostitutes as a "horde of human tigresses who swarm the pestilent dens by the riverside at Ratcliffe and Shadwell".

The Society for the Suppression of Vice estimated that between the Houndsditch , Whitechapel and Ratcliffe areas there were prostitutes; and between Mile End, Shadwell and Blackwall women in the trade.

They were often victims of circumstance, there being no welfare state and a high mortality rate amongst the inhabitants that left wives and daughters destitute, with no other means of income.

At the same time, religious reformers began to introduce "seamens' missions" throughout the dock areas that sought both to provide for seafarers' physical needs and to keep them away from the temptations of drink and women.

Eventually, the passage of the Contagious Diseases Prevention Act in allowed policemen to arrest prostitutes and detain them in hospital.

The act was repealed in , after agitation by early feminists, such as Josephine Butler and Elizabeth Wolstenholme, led to the formation of the Ladies National Association for the Repeal of the Contagious Diseases Acts.

Notable crimes in the area include the Ratcliff Highway murders ; [] the killings committed by the London Burkers apparently inspired by Burke and Hare in Bethnal Green ; [] the notorious serial killings of prostitutes by Jack the Ripper ; [] and the Siege of Sidney Street in which anarchists, inspired by the legendary Peter the Painter , took on Home Secretary Winston Churchill , and the army.

In the s the East End was the area most associated with gangster activity, most notably that of the Kray twins. Two people were killed and thirty-nine injured in one of Mainland Britain's biggest bomb attacks by the Provisional Irish Republican Army.

Inn-yard theatres were first established in the Tudor period , with the Boar's Head Inn in Whitechapel, the George in Stepney and John Brayne's short lived but purpose-built Red Lion Theatre , nearby.

In the City authorities banned the building of playhouses in the City of London, so new theatres were built in the suburbs, beyond its jurisdiction.

The first permanent theatres with resident companies were constructed in Shoreditch, with James Burbage 's The Theatre and Henry Lanman's Curtain Theatre in close proximity.

These venues played a major part in Shakespeare's early career, with Romeo and Juliet and Henry V first performed at the Curtain.

The play Henry V makes direct reference to the Curtain Theatre []. On the night of 28 December Burbage's sons dismantled The Theatre, and moved it piece by piece across the Thames to construct the Globe Theatre.

In the 19th century the East End's theatres rivalled those of the West End in their grandeur and seating capacity. The first of this era was the ill-fated Brunswick Theatre , which collapsed three days after opening, killing 15 people.

This was followed by the Pavilion Theatre, Whitechapel , the Garrick in Leman Street, the Effingham in Whitechapel, the Standard in Shoreditch , the City of London in Norton Folgate , then the Grecian and the Britannia Theatre in Hoxton There were also many Yiddish theatres , particularly around Whitechapel.

These developed into professional companies, after the arrival of Jacob Adler in and the formation of his Russian Jewish Operatic Company that first performed in Beaumont Hall, [] Stepney, and then found homes both in the Prescott Street Club, Stepney, and in Princelet Street in Spitalfields.

Other important Jewish theatres were Feinmans, The Jewish National Theatre and the Grand Palais. Performances were in Yiddish, and predominantly melodrama.

The once popular music halls of the East End have mostly met the same fate as the theatres. Prominent examples included the London Music Hall — , Shoreditch High Street, and the Royal Cambridge Music Hall — , Commercial Street.

An example of a "giant pub hall", Wilton's Music Hall , remains in Grace's Alley, off Cable Street and the early "saloon style" Hoxton Hall survives in Hoxton Street, Hoxton.

The music hall tradition of live entertainment lingers on in East End public houses, with music and singing.

This is complemented by less respectable amusements such as striptease , which, since the s has become a fixture of certain East End pubs, particularly in the area of Shoreditch , despite being a target of local authority restraints.

This coincided with a project by the philanthropist businessman, Edmund Hay Currie to use the money from the winding up of the Beaumont Trust, [] together with subscriptions to build a "People's Palace" in the East End.

Five acres of land were secured on the Mile End Road, and the Queen's Hall was opened by Queen Victoria on 14 May The complex was completed with a library, swimming pool, gymnasium and winter garden, by , providing an eclectic mix of populist entertainment and education.

A peak of tickets were sold for classes in , and by , a Bachelor of Science degree awarded by the University of London was introduced.

This finally closed in Professional theatre returned briefly to the East End in , with the formation of the Half Moon Theatre in a rented former synagogue in Aldgate.

There are three professional football clubs in the East End area; West Ham United , Leyton Orient and Dagenham and Redbridge. Leyton Orient and West Ham have roots in the maritime trades, with Orient having had links to the Orient Steam Navigation Company [] while West Ham originated as the works team of the Thames Ironworks and also had links to the Castle Shipping Line.

Dagenham and Redbridge was formed by the merger of four clubs, from across East London, with a lineage dating back to There are not strong rivalries between the three clubs, instead there is a degree of overlap in support.

By contrast, the rivalry between West Ham and Millwall is one of the fiercest in English football. Millwall, originated in the Isle of Dogs, but moved from East London to Deptford , South London in The rivalry between West Ham and Millwall is known as the Dockers Derby , as both clubs traditionally drew much of their support from the dockyards that once lay on either side of the Thames.

The encounter is noteworthy because the Foreign Office had pressured the England team to give the Nazi Salute before the game in an effort to ease international tension.

Goulden celebrated with a shout of "Let 'em salute that". In , three West Ham players Bobby Moore from Barking , Martin Peters from Plaistow and Geoff Hurst from Chelmsford were major contributors as England managed by Alf Ramsey from Dagenham won the World Cup , beating West Germany in extra-time at Wembley.

West Hams anthem I'm Forever Blowing Bubbles was used in the Olympic Opening Ceremony for the London Olympics of , [] with director Danny Boyle remarking that he couldn't tell the story of the East End without reference to the club.

Society at large viewed the East End with a mixture of suspicion and fascination, with the use of the term East End in a pejorative sense beginning in the late 19th century, [] as the expansion of London's population led to extreme overcrowding throughout the area and a concentration of poor people and immigrants.

Over the course of a century, the East End became synonymous with poverty, overcrowding, disease and criminality. A shabby man from Paddington , St Marylebone or Battersea might pass muster as one of the respectable poor.

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